Relief print (Linocut, woodcut)
The impression is created by the areas not to be printed being cut away from a block of wood or linoleum leaving a raised image in relief which when surface rolled with ink produces the image when pressed onto paper.
Intaglio print (Etching, drypoint, engraving)
The image is incised directly into a plate of metal or plastic which is then inked. The plate surface is wiped leaving ink trapped only in the etched and scratched lines or roughened areas of the surface which is then drawn up onto the paper when pressure is applied.
Planographic print (Lithograph, monoprint & monotype)
There is no difference in level between the inked surface and the non-
Screenprint (Silkscreen print, serigraph, photo-
The image is created by applying stencils to a screen constructed of synthetic or metallic material in such a way that when ink is applied it is prevented from passing through some parts while penetrating the rest of the screen, thereby printing an image on paper placed underneath.
Techniques may be, and often have been, combined -
Printmaking has a wonderfully rich history and over the past 500 years or more artists such as Dürer, Rembrandt, Goya, Toulouse-
Unlike painting, where the an artist might paint directly on a surface, the artist printmaker transfers an image created on one surface (a plate of metal, wood, glass, plastic or stone, or matrix of screens and stencils) onto another surface -
Depending on the technique used, the prints can be produced from either one, or many plates printed on top of each other, each representing a separate colour or design. Whatever the technique the processes are capable of producing anything from one print (and perhaps a second 'ghost image'), to multiples in an edition of prints numbering anything from ten or twelve to sometimes over a hundred or more. An artist will either create prints themselves or work alongside a master printmaker or experienced technician who might then edition the print on behalf of the artist.
Each printmaking technique is classified according to the type of surface and method used to create them.
|Art in the Arctic|
|Books & Videos|
|The Falklands, South Georgia & Antarctic Peninsula 2013|
|South Georgia on Pelagic Australis|
|Pension Insurance Corporation|
|Beyond Timbuktu - BBC 'World About Us' TV documentary|
|South Africa, tuna longlining|
|Bermuda in search of the Cahow|
|Arizona and Sonoran Desert|
|North Atlantic Odyssey_archive|
|NNN Conference_September 2016|
|Falklands, South Georgia and Antarctica 2015|
|Falkland Islands, South Georgia & Antarctic Peninsula|
|In The Studio|
|Florida, March 2017|
|Bringing the Dead Sea Back tio Life|
|Antarctica and Southern Ocean|